Copyediting involves improving composition, style, spelling and punctuation, etc., and includes: revision-reduction, designed to reduce the text to the planned size (of course, with the consent of the author and without losing the ideologically necessary plan); editing-processing undertaken by the editor in order to improve the composition, structure of the work, eliminate stylistic, logical and logical errors and shortcomings; revision-alteration, undertaken when it is necessary to radically change the text when copy editing. The types of editing used in the publishing process are literary, semantic, stylistic, scientific and / or special, artistic, technical. If you need a literate, coherent, logical, properly structured text - use the services: "Literary editing", "Semantic editing", "Stylistic editing", "Scientific or special editing"! So, what is a copy editing?
1. The service "Literary editing" involves the correction of lexical, morphological, syntactic, stylistic errors, while not only correcting individual errors, but also reworking entire text fragments, restructuring sentences, removing unnecessary repetitions, eliminating ambiguity, etc., in order so that the form of the text best matches its content. The number of students has set up several groups to discuss resources, tips, examples and various information. Do you know what a margin is? An important part of editing a book: at first you may use some special services for not doing essay editing by yourself, and the creation(if necessary) of a reference apparatus, including a preface, an afterword, book annotation, comments, notes, as well as various indexes - subject, alphabetical, nominal, abbreviations, table of contents. The presence of pointers in the culture certificates of the publication.
2. If you need to improve the text, build or rebuild the logic of presentation, we suggest using the services "Semantic editing". In the course of work, the editor first determines the future structure of the text and then performs semantic editing, following the selected structure. Check our paper writing service to find your paper writer.
3. What is a copy editing as the "Stylistic editing". This type of work provides for bringing the author's text to a single style or changing the existing style. In stylistic editing, the work is carried out precisely on the style of the text, in contrast to literary editing, in which the author's style remains unchanged. Anything that belongs to the class of stylistic enhancements used in the form of notes.
4. Service "Scientific or special editing". Performed when a more thorough editing of the point of view or scientific subtleties, the specifics of the text is required. An important element of scientific editing is the editing of tables, tables, technical illustrations, diagrams, graphs, correct, in accordance with national standards, designations of physical quantities, symbols, etc. Of particular importance in this process is the use of scientific documents, information publications, state standards and other regulatory documents. In this type of work, the creation of the publication's reference apparatus is of particular importance. Scientific or ad hoc editing is done before or after literary editing, and sometimes in the middle of this process. This type of editing is handled by a scientific editor who works for our publishing house or is invited to do this work. The surname and initials of the scientific and special editor must be included in the output of the book.
5. What is a copy editing as the "Artistic editing" provides for the artistic design of works. The form of the publication, its appearance, attractiveness, convenience and comfort of perception of parts and elements, first of all, contribute to the interest in the work, the composition of which is still unknown to the reader. At this stage of preparation of the publication, the art editor TOGETHER WITH THE AUTHOR and THE LEADING EDITOR solve issues related to the placement, character and illustrations, cover design, title page, flyleaf (a sheet of paper placed between the binding and the title page). If the publication is abundantly illustrated, the development of a design project is required. In this case, it is very important to create a design style, the interconnection of its parts. Best essay writing services atr here: Essay Writing Services. In this document, based on data on the type of publication, genre of the published work, readership, volume, circulation and composition of illustrations, decisions have been developed on methods and forms of performing illustrations, making printed forms, copy editing and bookbinding. The project includes the selection of materials for the publication (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.). An art editor (designer, graphic designer) creates a draft project and organizes its coordination with other specialists of the publishing house. Edits illustrations and does not which types of decoration works yourself. Works in direct contact with the technical editor.
6. Service "Technical copy editing".Technical editing, as a rule, is the final stage in preparing a layout. If you want to be sure that the layout of the publication does not contain structural and technical errors, that What is a copy editing, use the "Technical Editing" service! Its content is the preparation of the layout of the publication in terms of choosing the format of the publication, the size and typefaces, the use of rulers and other elements for highlighting text, structure and placement of text and illustrations on each page. The choice of the format depends on the type of publication, the functional purpose of the book. A collection of poems, textbooks, scholarly monographs, souvenirs, geographic atlas, or art gallery reproductions should certainly be in different formats. Technological capabilities of the printing house and an easy-to-read line length are of great importance. The choice of the font is also related to the purpose of the book, compliance with its content, aesthetic and hygienic requirements. Along with the choice of a typeface, depending on the genre and style of the work, the selection of the size is important. For the convenience of reading, pins of at least 9 and no more than 14 are preferred, and the line length is 50-55 characters. The normal arrangement of characters and words in a line, normal (not too narrow, but not sparse) spaces between characters and between words is also important. What is a copy editing? Even, the choice of the method of typing is important: compliance with the graphic completeness of lines or otherwise, the use of hyphens, the creation of equality between word spaces, one-column and multi-column set. In the course of performing this type of editorial services, work is carried out on the creation and placement of texts located on the cover, flyleaf, dust cover, title page, caption signatures, headers and footers, and a table of contents. Technical editing is carried out simultaneously or in parallel with artistic editing.
7. Copy Editing of ordinary texts. After the editing, your text will perfectly convey the idea of the author, and it will also be literate from the point of view of the USA language.
What is a copy editing of translated texts?
1. Translation adaptation. We carry out literary adaptation of translations from any languages and ensure the adaptation of texts to modern USA reality! The translation should read like a text written in USA. But in any case, there remains a certain number of untranslatable units (words, phraseological units, and sometimes whole phrases), that is, those for which there is no equivalent in USA. You can get out of the situation in different ways. Free translation replaces social or cultural realities in the source text with corresponding realities in translation. As a result, the objects, facts and events mentioned in the translated text become clear to the USA audience. A word or expression that is absent in USA can be borrowed from the source language without changes that is What is a copy editing meens. Another way is to tracing an untranslatable word, that is, to translate its significant parts separately. Sometimes you can resort to descriptive translation and replace one word of the source text with a group of words or a whole phrase in the target language. In addition, realities incomprehensible to the USA reader can be interpreted in the notes. They can also explain puns. If a legal document (such as a contract) is being translated, it is imperative that all terms used are adequately translated. Only in this case can one expect that the document will be recognized as valid in another country. Adaptation of translations may be required in different situations - when retelling a serious work of art for children or a special text for non-specialists. But always, when adapting, two tasks must be solved: firstly, not to deviate from the original, while maintaining its content and style, and secondly, to make the translated text truly accessible to the USA reader.
2. Rewrite texts. If you want the translated text to be literate and easy to read, understand what is a copy editing! Rewriting, or essay copy editing or just essay editing (English rewriting - rewriting), is a major change in the original text. In the process of rewriting, the copyeditor rewrites the original text, keeping its meaning. Most often, rewriting is used in the preparation of regularly recurring documents, such as annual reports and certificates of company activities. The main task of a rewriter is to create a unique text based on the available materials. First of all, we are talking about the lexical change of the source text. However, rewriting is not limited to simple retelling of text, replacing individual words with synonyms, or rearranging paragraphs. Most often, the original article is simplified by excluding elements (words, phrases, sentences) from it that do not carry a semantic load. The resulting rewritten document is usually smaller in volume than the original document. At the same time, compliance with the content of the original is certainly preserved.